With the term disability we refer to the personal condition of those who, as a result of accidental impairments, more or less severe, affecting the physical, mental, and senses, differ significantly from the concept of normality.
Therefore the person in question, possesses a Reduced ability to interact with the social environment and results less autonomous In performing daily physical activities.
Over the years, the concept of disability has also evolved.
For a long time in Italy disability was understood according to two definitions :
Definition from the doctor: disability as a synonym for physiological and psychological abnormalities that need medical treatment.
Social definition: disability concerns the disadvantages caused by the physical and social environment that limit the well-being of disabled people.
According to the vision of theWorld Health Organization (WHO). neither definition is sufficient; rather, they should be integrated with each other.
With that, it is important to point out that The need of the person with disabilities is primarily to find a suitable environmental context to scale down his or her disability.
In Italian provisions, however, disability is anchored in two articles of the Italian Constitution:
Art. 3 Const. states that "all Citizens have equal social dignity and are equal before the law, without any distinction, and that "it is the task of the Republic to remove obstacles of an economic and social order, which, by limiting the freedom and equality of citizens, prevent the effective participation of all workers in the political, economic and social organization of the country." The same article prohibits the distinction "of sex, race, language, religion, political opinion, personal and social conditions." With the latter, the civil rights of everyone and, therefore, also of people with disabilities are strongly affirmed.
Article 38 Const. where it is provided that "every citizen incapable of work and lacking the necessary means to live has the right to maintenance and social assistance." Quasi-compensatory assistance, then, once destitution and incapacity have been proven, it is only fair that people with disabilities be provided with the proper means to live, choose and participate, on a par with others.